Thermal Evaporation


Thermal Evaporation (TE) is a physical deposition technique used to create thin films on a substrate surface by evaporating a solid material. This versatile method allows for the deposition of a wide range of materials, like aluminium, gold, silver, nickel, chrome, etc. The material is located in a crucible, in a chamber kept in a high vacuum environment, and is subject to heating, until the temperature reaches the material evaporation point, when it starts to evaporate. The resulting vaporized molecules travel to the substrate surface, where they nucleate and form the thin film. It is possible to deposit organic materials too using this technique, but it requires precise temperature control, often achieved through the use of a source similar to an effusion cell.


Thermal evaporation is a popular technique for producing electric contacts and metal layers in
the semiconductor industry, as well as for R&D purposes in microelectronics. Moreover, organic
thermal evaporation can be used for manufacturing optical antireflective coatings for glasses and lenses, as well as for organic electronics, OLEDs, and other applications.

Key features

Deposited materials

Metals, Oxides, Semiconductors, Organics

Similar technologies

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Thermal Evaporation

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Chemical Vapor Deposition