Electron Beam Evaporation
Electron Beam Evaporation (EBPVD) is a physical deposition technique used to create thin films on a substrate surface by evaporating a solid material placed in a crucible. The e-beam is generated through the thermionic emission process, where an electric current passes through a tungsten filament, causing the filament to heat up and emit electrons. High voltage is then applied between the filament and the hearth, allowing the liberated electrons to accelerate towards the crucible, while a magnetic field focuses them into a beam. The collimated electron beam hits the material in the crucible, allowing the evaporation process and the aggregation on the substrate surface. Compared to thermal PVD, EBPVD allows high evaporation temperature materials deposition as thin films. Deposition rates using electron beam processes can vary from 1 nm per minute to several μm per minute, depending on the required structural and morphological film control.
E-beam evaporation finds widespread use in various industries, like semiconductor, thin-film solar, aerospace, and cutting and tool industries, for producing wear-resistant and thermal barrier coatings. This technique is used also to produce dielectric, optical coatings, and Josephson junctions and in micro and nano-fabrication for lift-off processes.
Metals, Oxides, Nitrides, Carbides, Semiconductors
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